Nouveau-Brunswick (French Edition)
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Most of New Brunswick  is forested with secondary forest or tertiary forest. At the start of European settlement, the Maritimes were covered from coast to coast by a forest of mature trees, giants by today's standards. Today less than one per cent of old-growth Acadian forest remains,  and the World Wide Fund for Nature lists the Acadian Forest as endangered.
This means that exposure-resistant species that are well adapted to the frequent large scale disturbances common in the boreal forest are increasingly abundant. These include jack pine , balsam fir , black spruce , white birch , and poplar. Forest ecosystems support large carnivores such as the bobcat , Canada lynx , and black bear , and the large herbivores moose and white-tailed deer.
Fiddlehead greens are harvested from the Ostrich fern which grows on riverbanks.
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Furbish's lousewort a perennial herb endemic to the shores of the upper Saint John River, is an endangered species threatened by habitat destruction, riverside development, forestry, littering and recreational use of the riverbank. New Brunswick's climate is more severe than that of the other Maritime provinces, which are lower and have more shoreline along the moderating sea. New Brunswick has a humid continental climate , with slightly milder winters on the Gulf of St.
Elevated parts of the far north of the province have a subarctic climate. Below is data for Fredericton from to On average Fredericton gets frost-free days from 18 May to 24 September.
Evidence of climate change in New Brunswick includes: Bedrock types range from 1 billion to million years old. During the Carboniferous era, about million years ago, New Brunswick was in the Maritimes Basin , a sedimentary basin near the equator. Sediments, brought by rivers from surrounding highlands, accumulated there and after being compressed, producing the Albert oil shales of southern New Brunswick.
Eventually sea water from the Panthalassic Ocean invaded the basin, forming the Windsor Sea. Once this receded, conglomerates , sandstones , and shales accumulated. The rust colour of these was caused by the oxidation of iron in the beds between wet and dry periods. In the early Triassic , as Pangea drifted north it was rent apart, forming the rift valley that is the Bay of Fundy.
Magma pushed up through the cracks, forming basalt columns on Grand Manan. The four Atlantic Provinces are Canada's least populated, with New Brunswick is the third least populous at , in The Atlantic provinces also have higher rural populations. New Brunswick was largely rural until since when the rural urban split has been roughly even.
The three major urban areas are in the south of the province and are:. Each person could choose more than one ethnicity. According to the Canadian Constitution, both English and French are the official languages of New Brunswick,  making it the only officially bilingual province. Anglophone New Brunswickers make up roughly two-thirds of the population, with about one-third being Francophone. This reflects a trend across Canada.
Fifteen percent of residents reported no religion. Equally characteristic of provincial politics were the multiple terms enjoyed by the governing party, for example, five consecutive Conservative premiers governed from to , followed by six consecutive Liberal premiers, from to Up until , when the New Democratic Party won a single seat, the only third party to make a mark in provincial politics was the United Farmers of New Brunswick, which won nine seats in As with other provinces, initially not everyone had the right to vote in provincial elections. Women received this right in , and Indigenous people in Indeed, ethnicity and regional disparity have historically been recurring themes in New Brunswick politics.
Politicians have occasionally exploited tensions between the French and English, but the winning party has traditionally been the one able to win a substantial share of support from both. Veniot took over in following a resignation, but was not elected and the first francophone. Robichaud introduced sweeping changes to economic and linguistic policies. Despite the opposition of prominent corporations and conservatives appalled at the pace of change, Robichaud remained in power for the decade. This had only happened once before in Canadian history, when the Prince Edward Island Liberals won every seat in His success in this area resulted in another large majority victory in the general election.
Lord was reduced to the smallest possible majority government, winning 28 seats, while the Liberals won 26 and the NDP one. Graham defeated Lord in the election, which was controversially called early by Lord in order to avoid entering a new legislative session with a minority following the resignation of PC MLA Peter Mesheau.
This backfired, and the Liberals formed a majority government, with 29 seats to the 26 won by the PCs.
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During the election, the province swung left again, giving Liberal leader Brian Gallant a narrow majority government with 27 seats. Technical difficulties with the vote-counting machines caused a delay in results and led the PCs to demand a recount.
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Elections New Brunswick, however, maintained the results were sound. The election resulted in a near tie between the Liberals and PCs. There is a rarely-used parliamentary tradition that says that the incumbent premier has the first right to try and form government, regardless of how many seats their party won.
Having lost one voting member of their party to fill the role of speaker of the legislature, the Liberals now needed the support of four non-Liberal MLAs. Without the confidence of the legislature, Gallant stepped down as premier, paving the way for Higgs. Although New Brunswick was the first province to establish a department of health, economic difficulties resulted in its services lagging far behind most other provinces until the late s.
Psychiatric care is offered in the home, in chronic care hospitals at Saint John and Campbellton, and in units of the regional hospitals. Hospital and other medical services are provided without premiums under the nationally integrated programs. Small user fees were introduced in A provincial plan aids people over 65 in the payment of prescription drugs.
Public health services include nursing, inspection, control of communicable diseases, maternal and child health care, home care, nutrition, tuberculosis control and the operation of a home dialysis program. The educational institutions of Loyalist New Brunswick began with a strong Anglican bias which stimulated the proliferation of other denominational schools and colleges.
The Common Schools Act of , which established free public schools, virtually excluded the Catholics. A later compromise permitted teaching by members of religious orders and religious instruction after school hours. Education, however, remained a flash point of tension among religious and language groups in the province. This and other educational reforms of the s relieved municipalities of their responsibilities for education and sought full educational services for both French and English in their own languages. Full curriculum and services are offered in both official languages through two parallel systems, from k to Financing is provided by the province.
In , school boards were abolished, and were replaced with a parent-driven structure at the school, district and provincial levels. Seven school districts remain, divided linguistically, and each linguistic grouping is responsible for its own curriculum: Each district is divided further into sub-districts 27 in the francophone districts, 41 in the anglophone districts , and is led by elected District Education Councils DEC. Bliss Carman , Sir Charles G. Bailey, Desmond Pacey , W. From the s private patrons such as J. Webster of Shediac and Lord Beaverbrook formerly Max Aitken of Newcastle helped develop institutional bases for creativity and for popular education through museums, art galleries, playhouses and universities.
In recent decades the universities have been centres of literary and artistic endeavour. Mount Allison is famous for its artists and musicians. The University of New Brunswick has developed journals of national stature, such as the literary Fiddlehead and the historical Acadiensis. Acadian choirs have gained an international reputation for excellence.
Theatre New Brunswick , a professional theatre company based in Fredericton , offers live theatre in the towns and cities of the province. There are also two dance companies, DancEast and DansEncorps, and 14 public art galleries. The Beaverbrook Art Gallery , the province's largest, features exhibitions of New Brunswick, Canadian, and international historical and contemporary art.
Until its bankruptcy, the French-language L'Evangeline was the daily voice of Acadians in the province. New Brunswick is home to 61 National Historic Sites. The New Brunswick Museum and its predecessor in Saint John has been an exhibitor of natural and human history for over years.
The Legislative Library in the capital contains an excellent collection of materials, books, pamphlets and government publications. Kings Landing , the restoration of a Loyalist settlement up the river from Fredericton, is a spectacular attempt to bring history alive to visitors through the activities of a 19th-century village.
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Roosevelt summer estate and neighbouring houses, and offers accommodation for small conferences. Recently a second international park has been designated on Saint Croix Island, the site of Champlain's first settlement in North America. Thorburn, Politics of New Brunswick ; W. A History — ; R. Bailey, Culture and Nationality ; W.
Rawlyk, Nova Scotia's Massachusetts, to ; R. Thematic Studies ; J. I forgot my password. Article by Ernest R.source link
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New Brunswick is one of three provinces collectively known as the "Maritimes. New Brunswick is now the only officially bilingual province in Canada. Land and Resources The area of New Brunswick is 72, km 2. Mixed forests cover the relatively shallow soils of the uplands of New Brunswick with red spruce, hemlock, white pine, balsam fir, yellow birch and maple photo by Tim Fitzharris.
A lighthouse in New Brunswick bears the colors of the Acadian flag.